car radio wattage and speakers explained. The RetroSound Premi
car radio wattage and speakers explained In car entertainment originated with car audio systems that consisted of radios and cassette or CD players, and now includes automotive navigation systems, video players, USB and Bluetooth … DS18 G1000. Peak power: The wattage a car amplifier has available for brief sound increases. White display on LCD; 12 / 24 hour clock; 12 month warranty; See below for more information on all motors for these radios. The higher the RMS rating, the louder and cleaner your music sounds. There are a couple of reasons for this. You can either take a free shuttle bus that runs every ten minutes or the SkyTrain that runs every 3 min. Free 2 day … A higher wattage rating for an amplifier means more power output to the speakers, and in turn louder volume. Pair MB QUART FKB169 6x9" 300 Watt Car Stereo Coaxial Speakers. Component speakers … If you want to use your car stereo to power the speakers, you’ll want a device that has a large efficiency rating. The 4-ohm speaker … Amps serve to increase the power to the car radio and speakers, all while improving the quality of the audio. Radio Installation Kits; Radio Replacement Interfaces / Harnesses . It’s simply the amount of energy your car speakers can … #amplifiers #amplifierboard #musicsystem making circuit throw animation. Free 2 day … The JL Audio XDM amplifier line replaces both the XD and the M series amplifiers from JL. 75/13. flametamer49 • 4 yr. Vintage Nippon EQ-765 Car Stereo Equalizer 300 Watt Booster. The cone vibrates with the . When you use multiple speakers, the output power from the amplifier will be distributed among the speakers. The JL Audio XDM800/8 is designed to withstand the elements and can be used in both car and marine . $199. You can calculate the power drop in dB using the formula; dB (power)= 10 × log (P1/P2) The … 17 hours ago · 1000watt amp. Cone speakers – Traditional speaker types with a flexible cone held in pace with magnets. JL Audio XDM500/3 500 Watt 3 Channel Amplifier. You can buy speaker wire with connectors or without. For example, a speaker with a peak wattage of 100 W and an RMS . As low as $29. Rather, the measurement is based on the diagonal length of the speaker frame. KICKER 47KSC404 KS Series 4" Coaxial Speakers with . Motors 1DAB, 2DAB and 6 Additional Information:-Dimensions (radio body): 3. Car stereos are available in a … Connecting speakers in parallel is more complicated, as impedance actually reduces for each speaker connected. It could be the maximum power that the speaker can convert into sound with a certain level of distortion. Woofer materialsFactory speaker cones are typically made of paper, which degrades over time. Polk Audio PAD4000. Efficiency on the other hand is measured as a percentage. It is extremely rare for car speakers to have more than 4 ohms of resistance. You tap into the rear left and right factory speaker wiring, and run speaker wires to a speaker-level input plug that comes with the amp. Answer 1 of 6: Hi all, I'll be flying from Frankfurt airport, but live 250km away, so need to decide what to do with my car (public transport not an option from where I live). It could be the maximum continuous power that the coil will dissipate without burning up. 5 inches Mounting: Flush or surface Pros. When you hook up a water hose to a water spigot and turn on the water, water will soon begin to stream through the hose. Since this imaginary speaker is rated to safely handle up to 100W, we could double that volume level yet again, and in theory, hit up to 110dB SPL by increasing the … Impedance of Car Speakers In car audio, 4-ohm speakers are the norm. 95. A car battery typically produces between 12 and 14 volts, compared to a home outlet which delivers around 110 volts. A car stereo that is rated at 40 watts RMS can deliver up to 120 peak watts of power. Each speaker features a poly-injected woofer cone with a rubber surround that can . These Kicker KS series speakers have a low power requirement of 15 Watts. . This can dramatically change the voltage reading you get and is worth knowing. Vintage Ts 1044 … Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for MB QUART okc169 CAR SPEAKERS - NEW OLD STOCK 6x9 new in box car audo 4x4 at the best online prices at eBay! Free shipping for many products! . several types of music system boards home theatre. In this case I would always go for the bigger wire, so go for 16 gauge. The power drops from 200 watts to 124 watts, a 76-watt drop or a 2. Vintage Ts 1044 … #amplifiers #amplifierboard #musicsystem making circuit throw animation. Free 2 day … With 70 volt there are a lot of advantages over 8-ohm systems. If your car stereo has an RMS wattage that is twice as much as the amplifier power output, then it would put out a clean and clear sound. When you look and the back of a speaker, you’ll see in the label the number of watts the speaker can handle. Speaker wires are usually between 18-14 gauge, but to work out the size for yours, you should know the Impedance and distance. The car stereo has a power range of 8 to 30 watts. In Tips for motorists. 4 dB SPL between 40 and 63 Hz. Most times, the wattage is low, somewhere around 8 to 10 watts RMS per chanel. The XDM400/4 puts out 75 watts per channel at 4 ohms, 100 watts per channel at 2 ohms, and 200 watts per channel at 4 ohms when bridged. CAR AUDIO DIGITAL MEDIA PLAYER STEREO RECEIVER W/ BLUETOOTH + 4x SPEAKERS 6. The … 6" x 9" Three-Way Car Audio Loudspeaker. P=402/ 12. $139. 5Ω. RMS: The amount of continuous power that an amplifier produces, measured in watts. Subwoofers add fullness to music, giving off rich, deep notes that any music lover will appreciate. $89. To find out the power of your head unit, type in the make and … A speaker with a sensitivity spec of 90 dB/2. and an RMS power of 112. Anything over 60 watts … A subwoofer is an excellent addition to improve the sound in your aftermarket car stereo system. ago It’s a 200watt radio split into at least 4 channels (4speakers) max output of the radio is 200watts. This is called the “sensitivity” or “SPL” rating. South West, Aripero. Our car-stereo amps are constructed to deliver in every aspect with the folks that enjoy loud and refined sound in … In addition to accepting your audio sources, the purpose of the in-dash receiver is to output that audio to your car's speakers via its internal amplifier. Speaker impedance, measured in Ohms, is the voice coil total resistance to the flow of electric current as it operates with a musical signal. Recognize that the way you wire your speakers affects resistance. Any car stereo with a power peak of 180 to 220 watts and RMS of 18 to 35 watts per channel is considered as best for great sound quality, also these types of stereos are not too expensive. 16-, 14-, or 12-gauge wires for subwoofers. Free 2 day shipping. It is very important to match your amplifiers impedance to your speakers impedance. JVC KD-T920BTS CAR STEREO CD USB AUX BLUETOOTH EQUALIZER 200W … A vehicle amplifier or stereo watt rating is the amount of power in Root Mean Square (RMS) wattage. 00 standard shipping Wattage Explained Of Car Stereo Here are some things that you should know about a car speaker’s wattage: 1. 78 $5. Look for the diagram near the speaker connects to see how yours is bridged. The RetroSound Premium RetroRadio retains the original look of your original classic Ford F-Series Truck 1980-1984 chrome radio while offering the most modern features available. music amplifier boards. Posted: Today 22:15 Ad ID: 376138. Speaker wattage can be defined in many ways and the vendor will choose one to suit his intended market. small music . 4 4-Channel 800 Watt RMS Car Audio Amplifier Amp PA D4000. JL decided to make it simpler and merged them to create the XDM series. This monoblock amp's simplicity leads to extremely clean sound and should be paired with Black Brick's subs to drastically improve the sound of your system. Built-in 4 Channel Amplifier: 18 Watts RMS / 40 Watts max. $219. Step 1: Choose your speaker style. Look for a sensitivity. Speakers wired in series are all connected in a chain and increase the resistance of your system. So, if you have a 600W RMS Class D amp, your math will be 600/0. 18-, 16-, or 14-gauge wires for speakers. For in-wall or ceiling … Part 1 of 3: Choose your speaker style and price range. Radio Extended Warranty Coverage starts after the included 2-year warranty. But in order for a subwoofer to sound great, it needs to … Kicker engineered these speakers to produce excellent overall sound quality with strong power handling of 6 to 90watts (RMS) and frequency response of 30Hz to 20kHz. Car Audio Brands Audison. Vintage Ts 1044 … Re: Transiting from Terminal 2 to Terminal 1. Wattage Chart. Speaker sensitivity is a measure of how well a driver can convert wattage to acoustic energy and is denoted in dB/W/M. Full range speakers are the basic speaker … Subwoofers are the backbone of a competition car audio system. Successful bridging depends on there being signal in both the right and left channels of the amp. Speakers also have a wattage rating which indicates how much power from the amp they can handle before being damaged. Sunfire's Atmos subwoofer — a much smaller design that is far less efficient — has a 1,400-watt amp, yet averages only 108. Rockford Fosgate. They are: Stereo speakers – Available in pairs or as 2. 00 + $10. In this case, the speakers are not wired correctly, or the separate wires are combined that results in overheating. Your amp set-up is generally most efficient when you match the wattage of your amplifier with the wattage of the speaker. 2 dB SPL between 40 and 63 Hz. or so. This stands. For the highly efficient … Car Audio Brands Audison. With our … Most dealers indicate the power rating of their standard factory car stereos to be 200w. One of the main reasons to buy a new stereo is to improve your car’s music playback and other features. 5" Sponsored. Choosing which battery to use to power your audio system can be daunting when faced with all sorts of numbers and specifications that don’t seem to have anything to do with car audio at all. Here, we are going to explain and simplify what speaker impedance is by visualizing water and a water hose. $649. music amplifier boards. 99 $79. 83V (the lower the first number, the more power the speakers need), buy the most powerful amp you. The industry standard for obtaining amplifier wattage ratings is RMS. Before, there were two separately amplifier lines that were essentially the same, but one was built to withstand the marine environment. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Memphis Audio SRX150. Component speakers … Car fuses are needed for all electronic devices and they come in different shapes and sizes. However, most people install these speakers in their car audio systems. Referred to as continuous power handling, RMS simply stands for the Root Mean Square wattage. The RMS wattage rating on your car … Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Pioneer 400W Car Stereo Amplifier GM-D1004 at the best online prices at eBay! Free shipping for many products! . The actual amount of power that the stereo produces will depend on the volume level that you have it set at. Sometimes, the amplifier also gets hot due to faulty wiring. There is great variation in the power by looking at the … As an overall recommendation, you should go for speakers that can produce up to 90db if you are using low-powered head units with 15 watts RMS power. A speaker cone (also called a diaphragm) is the main speaker component responsible for creating a sound wave each time it moves air back and forth rapidly. For example, two 4Ω speakers in parallel have a combined impedance of 2Ω. Finally, any treble sound falls between 4,000. Here's another example. 1 with a subwoofer. These are interdependent; increasing gain often leads to undesirable increases in noise and distortion. Also, you can bridge the XDM800/8 to deliver 200 watts per channel at 4 ohms. Car speakers are likely to have 4 ohms of impedance, whereas your home theater speakers will have 8 ohms. You have viewed 12 of 33 products. 9710145, which rounded up is 58 amperes. Experience a loud and powerful sound with these top 5. 1D Car Amplifier - 1000 W PMPO - 1 Channel - Bridgeable - 90 dB SNR - 0. Vintage Audiovox car Stereo Equalizer. The industry standard for obtaining amplifier … In a nutshell: Most speakers don't come with speaker wire. A crossover serves as a filter that blocks out unwanted frequencies to a speaker or group of speakers. The power of this amplifier is. 514 watts. Powered by BigCommerce. 96" x 1. Basically, it’s simply because sound waves from one speaker are moving in the opposite direction of the other speaker – and if they’re close to the same time and frequency range, often they cancel out. JBL. Free shipping. Lanzar Vibe Vibe1000. It’s up to you to select the right gauge (thickness) and type of wire for your system. 4. The “rms” in … If we connect (2) four ohm speakers ( R1 and R2) in parallel to an amplifier the total resistance will be: 1/ Rt = 1/ R1 + 1/ R2 or 1/ Rt = 1/4 + 1/4 or 1/ Rt = 1/2 Inverting the equation we get Rt = 2 ohms. Item #: XDM1000-1. That's because car audio systems run on 12 volts DC instead of a 120 volts AC. This product is currently out of stock. Here's what they mean: RMS: The amount of continuous power that an amplifier produces, measured in watts. 99. The first is the radio or "head unit" that controls the entire system and generates the audio signal. 08 dB drop. 99 Out of Stock. More importantly, at 92dB, these … The JL Audio XDM800/8 is an 800 watt, 8 channel amplifier that uses class D circuitry to deliver 75 watts per channel at 4 ohms and 100 watts per channel at 2 ohms. - cables and mounts not . Looking at the chart above: If you are running speakers at 4 ohms and the distance needed is 20 feet, then you are between 18 and 16 AWG. New. $47. Car radios usually come with an amp rated at between 10-20 Watts RMS (Root Mean Square). Item #: XDM500-3. Sensitivity becomes an important spec to consider when you have a low-power. For example, with a 180 watt / 70 volt amplifier, you can install speakers that total close to 150 watts. 25-inch car speakers . It is very important that you know the wattage of your car stereo. Rules for the operation and maintenance of headlights VW Passat B5 Diameter. speakers, woofers and sub-woofers. Social © Limitless Lithium. This means that when running continuously at full strength, they … Old School Pioneer DEH-P5200 Flip Face CD AM/FM Radio Car Stereo Audio Equalizer. 83V, but if your speakers are rated at less than 86 dB @ 2. Strong bass and clear highs; Included speaker grilles for custom installs; Sturdy stamped steel frame #amplifiers #amplifierboard #musicsystem making circuit throw animation. This amount isn’t adequate for a great on-road music . Condition: Used. Old School Pioneer DEH-P5200 Flip Face CD AM/FM Radio Car Stereo Audio Equalizer. $35. Vintage Ts 1044 … Black Brick Audio's trustworthy 1000 Watt amplifier is a staple in the lineup known for performance and reliability. A wattage rating does not. Technically speaking, a watt is a unit used to measure electric power. Also known as a radio, receiver, or head unit, the car stereo is essentially the centerpiece of any car audio experience. Free 2 day … 8 Ohm speakers also fall within the most preferred speaker categories for home stereos and car audio. The RetroRadio has built in Bluetooth wireless connectivity, so you can safely make hands-free telephone calls through your audio system plus stream music from any smart phone. In its simplest terms, the watt rating indicates what you may expect from your car audio under standard operating settings. Stereo/amp wattage is the maximum they can put out. These amps have a "Car/Boat" switch that allows . You’ll need the formula 1/Ωtotal = 1/Ω1 + 1/Ω2 + 1/Ω3 + …. It is this misunderstanding that can lead you to purchase another stereo that may output the same power or even less than the factory device. A DVC 2-ohm sub can have a total impedance of 1 ohm or 4 ohms. A decent set of front speakers might only set you back $50. For example, if you compare a 300W speaker to a 600W, you might assume … Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Memphis Audio SRX150. Whereas smaller devices such as an FM transmitter, you’ll need a smaller blade style fuse that will tap into your car fuse box. 8 = 57. $129. 00 shipping. Sound Deadening . Thankfully, Alpine's Type-E Series speakers promise quality sound from a respected car audio brand at a respectable … Specs. If a speaker has low impedance, that means it can tolerate more power (a stronger current). In this video I explain that RMS stands for root mean square and show you why that is the best way to measure amplifi Shop the DIY Audio Guy store How to. An amplifier, or “amp,” is a device that increases the strength of an audio signal. You want the stereo/amp wattage to be equal or less than the speaker wattage. 98" x 4. For output, connect the amp's right negative output terminal to the sub's negative terminal, and the amp's . 6" x 9" Coaxial Car Audio Loudspeaker. Wattage Rating When it comes to car stereos, the wattage rating is important because it … Their sensitivity rating is 91dB @ 2. However, if you are looking for a louder and more powerful sound system, then you will need an amplifier with a higher wattage. Pioneer GM-D1004 400 Watt 4-Channel Digital Class D Car Audio Amplifier. Or a more complex connection of two 4Ω and one 6Ω speakers have an impedance of just 1. Add to Cart. You can choose between a full range or a component speaker system. Wattage Rating When it comes to car stereos, the wattage rating is important because it … The per-channel wattage output of the car stereo or amplifier determines the loudness of the sound system. 03 x 10. The average power output of a vehicle’s factory CD stereo is around 8-10 watts RMS per channel. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for MB QUART okc169 CAR SPEAKERS - NEW OLD STOCK 6x9 new in box car audo 4x4 at the best online prices at eBay! Free shipping for many products! . 30" = 10. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Pioneer 400W Car Stereo Amplifier GM-D1004 at the best online prices at eBay! Free shipping for many products! . 50 + $16. JVC KD-T920BTS CAR STEREO CD USB AUX BLUETOOTH EQUALIZER 200W … Idling sensor for Volkswagen Passat B3: do-it-yourself diagnostics and replacement. Factory speakers are typically anemic, so you may notice an improvement in the sound by replacing the front speakers. 1D Car Amplifier - 1 x 200 W @ 4 … #amplifiers #amplifierboard #musicsystem making circuit throw animation. 50 shipping. Contrary to popular belief, the size of the speaker is not measured using the diameter of the speaker cone. Aftermarket audio sources provide many functions, including: MP3/WMA/AAC playback . 83 volts is higher. It means that the stereo can produce up to 50 watts of power for each of its four channels. 5 Inch 280 Watt 4 Ohm Mid Tweeter Component Audio … You should know that the car amplifiers generate a lot of heat while playing the music in high volumes for a long time. A DVC 4-ohm sub can be wired into a system as a 2-ohm or as an 8-ohm load. It seems … Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Pioneer 400W Car Stereo Amplifier GM-D1004 at the best online prices at eBay! Free shipping for many products! . 5 watts. Infinity. 9cm (W x H x D approx. 85= 124. Once the speakers are hooked up, there will be a switch marked Stereo, Mono, or Bridged. The RMS power on your amp should always match the RMS power rating on your subwoofer and speakers. For example, if your amp is in the trunk and you're sending 100 watts to your front speakers, 14-gauge speaker wire is a good call. You can calculate the power drop in dB using the formula; dB (power)= 10 × log (P1/P2) The … In-car entertainment (ICE), or in-vehicle infotainment (IVI), is a collection of hardware and software in automobiles that provides audio or video entertainment. Just like you can’t have a short circuit across a battery, an amp or … Wattage Explained Of Car Stereo Here are some things that you should know about a car speaker’s wattage: 1. This measure only tells you the power requirements at which a speaker can operate, not the output volume. 4D Car Amplifier GEN-X Full-Range Class D 4-Channel 1000 Watts Max Power 2/4 Ohm Stable, Bridgeable, High/Low Pass Filter - Small Compact Amp for Speakers in Car Audio System. Midrange covers the audible spectrum from 250 to 4,000 Hz, and includes instruments such as the guitar (275 Hz), flute (800 Hz) and piano (2,000 Hz). Get the latest updates on new products and upcoming sales. 83 volts is considered moderate; one with a 94 dB/2. Limitless Lithium. A higher wattage rating for an amplifier means more power output to the speakers, and in turn louder volume. 90. Since most multi-channel, full range amps are configured for 4Ωs, this is mainly a concern when dealing with subwoofers. In car audio, typically the full range, mid range speakers, and tweeters are almost always rated at 4Ωs. Subwoofer manufacturers make subs with dual voice coils (DVC) to take advantage of this difference in wiring schemes, so the user has more freedom of system design. As you can see in the wire gauge chart below, the gauge needed for an 8 foot power cable would be 8 gauge. A 4-ohm speaker extracts twice as much power than an 8-ohm speaker from an amplifier. Excellent Amp!!! I recently purchased the Pioneer GM-D1004 400 Watt 4-Channel Digital Class D . Podofo double din car stereo – 140 watts, 12×6 inches, $70; Sony double din car stereo – 60 watts, 10×9 inches, $50; Average watts of the car stereo. Similarly if we connect (3) … Speaker wattage is the electrical power handling capabilities that a speaker can receive from an amplifier. 5 Inch Car Speaker with Good Bass for Car Truck Front Door, 360 Watts MAX of Per Pair and 180 Watts Each, 2 Way, Full Range, Sold in Pairs $37. A…Tweeter materialsA tweeter's material and design have a big effecton the type of sound it … See more Audio Systems Coaxial Car Speakers Stereo - 6. 1% THD - 15 Hz to 150 Hz - MOSFET Power Supply - 1 x 200 W @ 4 Ohm - 1 x 350 W @ 2 Ohm Lanzar Vibe Vibe1000. 2 150 Watt 2-Channel Car Stereo Amplifier 2 Or 4 Ohm Amp at the best online prices at eBay! Free shipping for many products! . 75W x 4 @ 4 Ohms. With a speaker, the water is much like an electrical current streaming through the coil. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for NOS 2003 Road Gear 30 Watt AM FM Cassette Car Stereo Receiver RGCM-31 CD Jack at the best online prices at eBay! Free shipping for many products! . As with the power wire, the longer the run and the more current you're pushing through it, the larger size you should use. $799. 95 37% off. $149. A 4-ohm impedance allows car audio speakers to … The difference between peak watts and RMS watts is that peak watts are the maximum output, while RMS watts are the average output. Most car … Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Pioneer 400W Car Stereo Amplifier GM-D1004 at the best online prices at eBay! Free shipping for many products! . #amplifiers #amplifierboard #musicsystem making circuit throw animation. Kicker. $119. It is the dB sensitivity difference that matters. 39 $74. The point is that wattage can never be the sole basis of the loudness of a speaker. This is extremely useful because it allows us to specifically send each speaker the group of frequencies that it will play most efficiently and effectively. A guitar amplifier, for example, takes a weak signal from a guitar and makes it strong enough to drive a speaker. However, this is quite misleading because there are differences between peak and RMS wattage. 96. 5 Inch , Full Range, Replacement Car Speaker - Sold Individually Pyle Car Three Way Speaker System - Pro 6. Peak Watts: 225 watts Subwoofer Diameter: 6. JL Audio XDM1000/1 1000 Watt Monoblock Amplifier. 1 x 5. Speaker wattage is the maximum they can handle. Hsu Research's VTF-15H subwoofer has a 350-watt amp and puts out an average of 123. It does not matter if it is 10 speakers that are 15 . Morel. This is the maximum amount of power that the stereo can produce and is not a continuous rating. Hertz. They provide the bone-thudding, organ-rattling bass notes that will let you impress judges and onlookers alike as you try to outdo. While negative … Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Pioneer 400W Car Stereo Amplifier GM-D1004 at the best online prices at eBay! Free shipping for many products! . As low as $36. Most … There are several types of speaker and they all offer a different experience. Sale. Instead you want to always use RMS power. 8 Ohm speakers consume less power … #amplifiers #amplifierboard #musicsystem making circuit throw animation. Car Audio Speakers Loudspeaker Function The purpose of a loudspeaker (also known as a driver) is to convert the audio signal in its electrical form (from the amplifier) to a pressure wave that we perceive as sound. JL Audio. This amp can power virtually any and all car and boat speakers on the market today. The second is an amplifier that increases the strength of the audio signal so that it can. On … Wattage The wattage of your speaker is primarily determined by the diameter of the voice coil and the weight of the magnet. Since most multi-channel, full … Key design parameters for audio power amplifiers are frequency response, gain, noise, and distortion. 5" Tweeters, 4ohm. This Rockford Fosgate … Typically the speakers will be hooked to the positive side of one channel and the negative side of another thus bridging the channels, but this is not always the case. 6-1/2" Car Audio Component Speaker System. For bigger devices, such as a car amplifier you’ll need an inline fuse holder that runs through your power wire from the battery. Generally a larger voice coil and heavier magnet can handle more power. It can drive loudspeakers connected with speaker wire with more power, volume, and sound clarity. Car Stereo Wattage Explained. One of the main advantages is the simplicity of the wiring as well as how easy it is to match up speakers with the amplifier. $349. This decreases the amount of power received by each speaker. For larger vehicles (like an SUV) and for those who just want more energy (volume), you should look out for at least a 75 watts RMS per channel … BOSS Audio Systems BRS65 80 Watt, 6. 98 . GX608C. $79. several types of music syst. Bus is … Car audio system PRV AUDIO 6MR500-NDY - YouTube 0:00 / 7:06 Intro Myth busted, real test 4 Ohm vs 8 Ohm speaker? Car audio system PRV AUDIO 6MR500-NDY LIFE IN … A car amplifier boosts a very small electrical audio signal from the head unit to a higher voltage. $78. 6" x 9" Three-Way Car Audio Loudspeaker. GX9628. Sound quality according to price and available in all shapes and sizes. These are typically made of lightweight …. If your car stereo has an RMS wattage of 20 to 40 watts per channel, it’s generally enough to achieve good sound quality. It’s what you see and interact with, with modern units offering. Theme Customized & Maintained by .